Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Cartoon about science

Friday, July 25, 2014

Tavistock Tutors

I was surfing on the internet and found a website that provides a very interesting and potentially useful service to many readers of this blog. I am talking about Tavistock Tutors (, which allows students of various levels of education to have access to private tutors in any subject site. This service is mainly conducted ​​in London, but it is also possible to have a tutoring service internationally. It is a company that was founded in 2009 and aims to be the best tutoring company in London. The goal is hard to achieve, but they are in the right way, undoubtedly! It has grown significantly in recent times, having already over 400 tutors and many renowned academic advisors. In fact, it is a company that promises to revolutionize the way we study and how do we have access to knowledge. The extensive tutor database of Tavistock Tutors is able to solve the problem of virtually any student, 365 days a year, 24 hours a day. One key of their success lies in the fact that tutors are carefully selected to ensure the quality of education they provide.
In the case of Biochemistry, Tavistock Tutors has a team of excellent professionals, trained in some of the most respected departments of Biochemistry around the world, such as Cambridge, Oxford and Imperial College London. You can access more detailed information about these tutors in The competence of the tutors of Biochemistry, in particular, goes far beyond their knowledge, and the way they link the basic concepts of biochemistry (biology and chemistry) allows students to better understand the subjects and, consequently, achieve better results in their examinations. Do you have questions about the chemistry of biomolecules, on the basis of our metabolism, or on a metabolic pathway in particular? The Tavistock Tutors will surely help you!
So, you know… If you need additional help to better understand biochemistry, if you need someone who can explain you the details behind this science that sometimes is quite complex,visit their website and you can make the request for tutoring through it and you will see that after all the biochemistry is not that hard! :)

Thursday, July 24, 2014

Mitochondrial ATP synthase (general characteristics)

The mitochondrial ATP synthase (F-ATP synthase) is an enzyme which is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane whose function is closely related to the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Because of this, some authors call it Complex V, though most do not use this nomenclature. Personally, I also think it should not be called Complex V, since the complexes are, in my opinion, those involved in the transport of electrons, and this process ends in oxygen (in the complex IV). 

As its name suggests, the ATP synthase will catalyze the synthesis of ATP molecules through the process of oxidative phosphorylation. That is, to conduct the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP it is necessary an oxidation, which in this case involves the use of NADH or FADH2 in the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
The general reaction of operation of ATP synthase is:
ADP + Pi → ATP
This reaction is quite endergonic and therefore requires energy to occur. And where does this energy come from? From the H+ gradient created during the operation of the respiratory chain complexes. Therefore, the energy liberated during the transport of electrons is used to create an accumulation of H+ in the intermembrane space, and then these ions will tend to return to the matrix, causing the release of energy. This is the energy that is used to produce ATP.
ATP synthase has two different subunits:
- Fo subunit which is a transmembrane subunit with a pore through which the H+ return to the matrix. As a curiosity, the name is Fo (and not F "zero"), because the "o" derives from the fact that this subunit binds to oligomycin, which is an antibiotic.
- Subunit F1, the catalytic subunit which is responsible for ATP synthesis and is located in association with the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Paradoxically, this subunit has an ATPase activity (ATP hydrolysis) when isolated, but when in contact with the inner mitochondrial membrane and specifically to Fo subunit, it has the activity of ATP synthesis.

Wednesday, July 9, 2014

Music about the immune system

The music Yankee Doodle inspired Dr. Ahern to create a song about the immune system.

Download the music here

The Immune Tune

Antigen presenting cells
Help to clear infection
And they help your thymocytes
Go through t-cell selection

Endocytose antigen
And then cross-present it
All to slow the illness down
Or possibly prevent it

Activate a CD8
This will help you be well
It will differentiate
To cytotoxic t-cell

Systems of immunity
Fusing with perfection
Thank Adaptive and Innate
For giving such protection!